Monday, January 24, 2011

Consolidate the Gains, Strengthen Peasant Unity in Asia and Intensify the Struggle

By Prof. Jose Maria Sison
Chairperson
International League of Peoples’ Struggle
24 January 2011

(Keynote Address to the 3rd General Assembly of Asian Peasant Coalition (APC), Sri Lanka, January 23-24, 2011)


First of all, I wish to convey to the Asian Peasant Coalition (APC) the warmest greetings of solidarity and reiteration of support from the International League of Peoples’ Struggle. I thank you for inviting me to be the keynote speaker of your 3rd General Assembly. I feel doubly honored as I recall having been the keynote speaker of your 2nd General Assembly in Bandung in 2006.

We congratulate you for striving to unite and mobilize the peasant masses to struggle for their rights against the imperialist and domestic forces that deprive them of land, exploit them and oppress them. Your coalition stands us as a developing bulwark of the hundreds of millions peasant masses in Asia.



We congratulate you for the significant achievements that you have won since the last assembly. You have gained a certain level of strength to serve as the basis for expanding and further strengthening your ranks. The forces that your coalition and the peasant masses confront are becoming ever more rapacious and repressive.

As the theme of your assembly precisely demands, it is imperative that you consolidate your gains and strengthen Asian peasant unity, persevere in the struggle for land and national sovereignty and intensify the resistance against imperialist globalization and war. Landlessness in Asia and violations of peasant rights are intensifying at an alarming rate over the last ten years as a result of the policy of neoliberal globalization.

The persistence of this policy has aggravated the economic, financial and social crisis and has prevented any real economic recovery in terms of production and employment in both the imperialist and underdeveloped countries. The crisis is driving the US and the corporate giants to make up for the declining rates of profit in the imperialist countries by intensifying exploitation and oppression and by raising further their superprofits in the underdeveloped countries.

The corporate giants in the US and other imperialist countries are engaged in land grabbing in collusion with corrupt domestic bureaucrats, big compradors and landlords, emboldening the traditional landlords to engage in further land accumulation and are preventing genuine land reform by drumming up the market as the way to solve the land problem. The foreign and domestic vultures are preoccupied with exploiting the natural and human resources and providing cheap raw materials and docile labor for the imperialist corporations.

The persistence of feudalism and semi-feudalism, characterized by landlessness among the peasant masses and aggravated by the intrusions of foreign agro-corporations, and the consequent lack of comprehensive and well-balanced industrial development are the fundamental reasons behind the widespread state of poverty and hunger among Asian farmers and other people in the rural areas who live on less than $1 a day.

You are correct in pointing out that neo-liberal policies have inflicted extreme suffering on the people. These policies include the reduction of subsidies in food, agriculture and social services as part of Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs); the constraints imposed by the Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) in favor of TNCs; the integration of agriculture under the World Trade Organization’s (WTO)/Agreement on Agriculture (AOA); and large-scale corporatization of agriculture.

The lack of genuine land reform and industrial development under the banner of national sovereignty is further pushing down the agrarian economies in Asia. There is a crying need for genuine agrarian reform and free land distribution and for agricultural cooperativization. But schemes of land concentration by a few have run fast ahead. They include the Compulsory Acquisition of Land, Special Economic Zones and so many other land-extensive projects not only in corporate agriculture but also for mining, logging, tourism and real estate speculation/

The imperialist countries collectively and bilaterally impose their policies on the puppet states in Asia at the expense of the peasant masses, farm workers, peasant women fisherfolk and other rural producers. They use the agencies like the IMF, the World Bank, ADB and WTO, and regional trade formations like APEC and ASEAN to perpetuate their dominance.

When multitateral trade agreements fail, like the Doha Round and the 6th WTO Ministerial Meeting in Hong Kong, the US and other centers of world capitalism pursue bilateral talks in the form of free trade agreements (FTAs) and the so-called ‘Aid for Trade’ which was supposed to complement the Doha Agenda.

We in the ILPS admire and highly appreciate the victories that the APC has achieved since 2003 in waging struggles for genuine land reform and defending human rights against repression, state terrorism and imperialist wars. You have accumulated strength by raising the level of consciousness, organization and mobilization of the peasant masses in Asia. You have acted effectively in a collective way as an alliance as well as individually in the different countries where your members are.

You have launched fact finding missions, exchange programs, coordinated researches, workshops, forums, tribunal, mobilization, petition signing, dialogues, conferences, solidarity missions and other enlightening activities. You have carried out mass campaigns for genuine agrarian reform against tremendous odds and difficulties. And you have learned from each other’s struggles by exchanging ideas and experiences and engaging in various forms of practical cooperation. We are therefore confident that you have the basis for advancing further.

Jose Maria Sison
We salute all the peasant masses, their organizations and their leaders that have resolutely and militantly waged mass struggles for their political, economic, social and cultural rights. We join you in acknowledging and celebrating the peasant struggles and victories in India, Bangladesh, Nepal, the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia. We have avidly read reports about these in your website and in your briefing paper. We suggest that you include in the scope of your study and work the peasant masses of China, Indochina and possibly Central Asia.

We in the ILPS are proud that from July 2009 to April 2010, APC and ILPS Commission No. 6 cooperated in sponsoring the “Asia-wide Peasants’ Caravan for Land and Livelihood” with the theme “Stop Global Land Grabbing! Struggle for Genuine Agrarian Reform and Peoples’ Food Sovereignty.” The caravan culminated in the Philippines on April 11, 2010 with 12 international participants coming from 9 countries in Asia.

We consider that the 3rd general assembly is highly important and consequential. It serves as the venue to evaluate your work, to discuss, to brainstorm and to strengthen perspectives, strategies and collective action for your future work in the whole of Asia and in your respective countries. We are hopeful that the assembly fulfills all its objectives.

It is a requirement for the next harvest of victories and for your long term advance that you evaluate the work of APC (and its secretariat) and highlight its assessment points to guide its work ahead; unify your ranks on the practical application of principles and framework in your struggle for genuine agrarian reform as well as your networking, alliance and solidarity building; to consolidate and strengthen APC leadership, membership and its secretariat to effectively fulfill its mandate and tasks; and come up with general program of action, thrust and directions and common Asia-wide campaign.

I take this opportunity to invite the Asian Peasant Coalition and all its organizations to send delegations to the Fourth International Assembly of the ILPS to be held in Manila from July 7 to 9. You shall be able to present your just cause before Commission No. 6 and the plenary, to draw up a resolution on land reform and peasant rights and integrate it with the general resolution and with the over-all struggle of the people of the world and to network with various delegations representing people’s organizations on a global scale. Thank you.###



(Reprinted with permission from Mr. Joma Sison)

_______

Source:

Sison, Jose Maria. Consolidate Your Gains, Strengthen Asian Peasant Unity And Intensity The Struggle.  24 January 2011. http://www.josemariasison.org/?p=6126#more-6126


Photo credit:

Prof. Joma Sison



Licencia de Creative Commons Reposts are licensed to the respective authors. Otherwise, posts by Jesusa Bernardo are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Philippines.

Saturday, January 22, 2011

The Heinous MENDIOLA MASSACRE, January 22, 1987

Mendiola Massacre January 22, 1987 - The Massacre
Uploaded by kmppio. - News videos from around the world.


Mendiola Massacre according to Bulatlat (excerpts):

On Jan. 22, 1987, some 10,000 to 15,000 farmers marched from the agrarian reform office in Quezon City to Mendiola in Manila to remind the late former president Corazon C. Aquino to make good on her word to implement genuine agrarian reform. According to reports, anti-riot personnel under the command of then Capital Regional Command commander Gen. Ramon Montaño, Task Force Nazareno under the command of Col. Cesar Nazareno and police forces under the command of Western Police District (WPD) Chief Brig. Gen. Alfredo Lim had been prepared to block the protestors.

The phalanx of civil disturbance control units was comprised of policemen from the WPD, members of the Integrated National Police Field Force, members of the Philippine Marine Corps, and the Marine Civil Disturbance Control Battalion. Behind the line of these fully armed personnel were army trucks, water cannons, fire trucks and two Mobile Dispersal Teams prepared to launch tear gas.



At the back of the marines were four 6×6 army trucks, occupying the entire width of Mendiola street, followed immediately by two water cannons, one on each side of the street and eight fire trucks, four trucks on each side of the street. Stationed farther behind the CDC forces were the two Mobile Dispersal Teams (MDT) each composed of two tear gas grenadiers, two spotters, an assistant grenadier, a driver and the team leader.

As the farmers reached Claro M. Recto, the government forces attacked. In the melee, 13 farmers were killed, 39 were wounded by gunshots, and 20 suffered various injuries. Killed were Danilo Arjona, Evangelio, Leopoldo Alonzo, Angelito Guiterrez, Adelfa Aribe, Rodrigo Grampan, Dionisio Bautista, Bernabe Laquindanum, Roberto Caylo, Sonny Boy Perez, Vincent Campomanes, Roberto Yumul, and Ronilo Dumanico.

In the immediate aftermath of the massacre, the peace panel of the National Democratic Front of the Philippines (NDFP) withdrew from peace talks with the Government of the Republic of the Philippines (GRP).

Source: 

Silverio, Inna Alleco. Farmers Urge Noynoy to Reopen Mendiola Massacre Case. 14 January 2011.
http://bulatlat.com/main/2011/01/14/farmers-urge-noynoy-to-reopen-mendiola-massacre-case/


Photo art: Jesusa Bernardo

Raw photo credits:

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/f/f8/Mendiomasscre.jpg
http://videosonar.com/2/video/%20cory/xgghmq.html
http://kasaysayan.livejournal.com/1027.html
http://bulatlat.com/main/2011/01/14/farmers-urge-noynoy-to-reopen-mendiola-massacre-case/



Licencia de Creative Commons Reposts are licensed to the respective authors. Otherwise, posts by Jesusa Bernardo are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Philippines.

Sunday, January 16, 2011

HOCUS PCOS 2010 Philippines

 by Ms. Grace Riñoza-Plazo
 (Ang Kapatiran 2010 Senatorial Candidate)



My dear Fellow Filipinos:

From the very beginning I knew it would take a miracle for me to win. I was ecstatic enough that I had the courage, the strength (I’m 62), and the opportunity to run for the Senate. I thought that the long- suffering and complaining Filipinos could perform a miracle. I believe in the Filipinos and in their capacity for greatness.

The miracle of a victory did not happen. Something else happened. A black magic against the Filipinos was performed. But the Lord would not allow it to take place without a little miracle in our favor- in the form of a concrete evidence of vote- shaving and vote- regrowing. It is a PCOS “ Voodoo” or PCOS “Shave & Regrow”.

I went to Congress to share this story at the House Committee on Suffrage and Electoral Reform but I had some eerie feeling this story will just be buried among the countless stories of Filipino grievances.
I waited patiently for my chance to ask questions and clarifications from the Smartmatic representatives . When I presented my case, no Smartmatic representative was present. A  week before my schedule to question them, the Congress investigation was unceremoniously terminated.

Background

I am from Nasugbu, Batangas, residing in Quezon City. I ran for the Senate under Ang Kapatiran Party. The Nasugbu canvass of votes came out 2:35:55 a.m. of May 11. This is evidenced by the certified true copy of the Certificate of Canvass (COC) for Nasugbu. The Nasugbu canvass appearing at the ibanangayon.ph shows the correct results as follows:
                                           Nasugbu               Batangas
                                           Canvass                Canvass

President : JC de los Reyes - 54                         - 8
Vice : Jun Chipeco -               43                          - 7

Senators:

Tamayo:                               -606                        -156
David:                                  -568                         -154

Sison:                                   -421                        - 104
Imbong                                 -324                        - 213
Valdehuesa                           -157                         - 39
Tarrazona                             -138                         - 48
Riñoza-Plazo                     -11,894                        - 47

Ibangayon.ph is the website showing also the partial results like those from the cluster precinct. As of May 11, ibanangayon.ph was already showing the completed canvass of Nasugbu votes. As of 3:00 p.m. of May 12, the COMELEC National Canvass (election results.comelec.gov.ph) for the whole of Batangas was showing the shaved results ( appearing above opposite the Nasugbu figures for your easy configuration.

The votes of all AKP candidates were shaved; worst of all was mine—from 11,894 to a measly 47 votes. These computerized cheating by shaving or “bawas” was there for all to see at the websites : ibanangayon. ph and for the COMELEC national canvass at: electionresults.comelec.gov.ph. Both websites showing varying results were available until the afternoon of May 12, 2010 as evidenced by affidavits executed by AKP volunteer Administrative Staffs Jackie Losala and Joyce Solatre. AKP has it in soft copy.

When Ang Kapatiran saw the shaved Nasugbu results, our Presidential candidate JC de los Reyes withdrew his previous act conceding defeat. This withdrawal was prompted by the Nasugbu vote shaving –among the other election irregularities which were starting to surface.

The retraction by JC de los Reyes was all over the radio and television stations. Within a short period of time, Jackie Losala reported that the Comelec website could not be accessed. When it reappeared, electionresults.comelec.gov.ph has restored my missing votes—like magic; with the flick of a switch or a sleight of hand.

Notes:

The local municipal canvass such as that of Nasugbu is forwarded to the provincial canvasser such as Batangas only after the total votes had been canvassed in the municipal level. Batangas then forwards the consolidated provincial canvass to the National COMELEC Canvassing center at the PICC which is supposed to reflect my total Nasugbu results of 11, 894 votes. But up to May 12, at about 3:00pm it was reflecting only 47 votes out of 11, 894. It remained that way for almost 2 days from the date and time of the completion of the Nasugbu Municipal Canvass. The shaved figures however were magically rectified after the fraud has been discovered by the AKP staffs and after JC de los Reyes already withdrew his act of conceding defeat--with the Nasugbu shaving as one of his reasons.

Questions & Probable Answers

1. Why were there two varying sets of figures representing the canvassed Nasugbu AKP votes when these numbers were supposed to have been sent by one and the same counting machine (PCOS)? There must be two or more PCOS handling the same votes but performing different functions such as diverting, adding, shaving, etc. Or the Nasugbu Municipal votes were simply shaved while being transmitted to the Batangas Provincial canvasser.

2. How was the shaved figures rectified after the discovery of the shaving and the publicized retraction by JC de los Reyes to make them conform to the correct number of votes appearing at the Nasugbu COC (Certificate of Canvass)? This rectification/regrowing shows that with the flick of a switch or a sleight of hand of those manning the PCOS the canvassed votes can be subjected to subtraction, addition, multiplication; may be made to disappear into the cyberspace, even dance Cha-cha and/or follow any other action at the whim of the operator.

3. During the almost two days when the AKP votes were missing in the COMELEC canvass, where were they being kept or stored? Are they waiting for the highest bidder or have been diverted already in favor of other candidates? When the correct figures of AKP votes were restored were these numbers taken back from the candidates in whose favor they were credited or did the PCOS manufacture the missing number of votes? This must be one explanation for the avalanche of excessive number of votes in favor of the winning candidates right after the closing of the poles.

Coming out with this expose can pit me against heartless machines operated by men and women with devious schemes. But I trust in the Filipinos’ basic sense of righteousness. With this faith in you I believe that you will help me get to the bottom of what may be called Precinct Count Optical Scam ( PCOS 2010). Or at the very least, you have given me a chance to present to you my case. And for this I thank you.

May God bless us all and light our road.

Sincerely yours,
Grace Riñoza-Plazo
AKP Senatorial Candidate

(Reprinted with permission from Ms. Grace Rinoza-Plazo)

_________


Source:

Riñoza-Plazo, Grace. HOCUS PCOS 2010 Philippines. http://www.facebook.com/note.php?note_id=129393793743482


Photo credit: 

http://www.facebook.com/?sk=messages&tid=1773234620053#!/photo.php?fbid=389173414089&set=t.100000610537641

Licencia de Creative Commons Reposts are licensed to the respective authors. Otherwise, posts by Jesusa Bernardo are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Philippines.

Thursday, January 13, 2011

Prolonged Ceasefire before Basic Reforms Equals Capitulation & Pacification

Interview by email with Prof. Jose Maria Sison
NDFP Chief Political Consultant
By Sonny Mallari
Philippine Daily Inquirer
9 January 2011

Dear Sonny,

Because of hectic preparations for the Oslo preliminary talks, I do not have the time to linger on the general tenor of your letter or the onesided spins in the PDI editorial. Let me just answer  what are clearly your two bunches of questions:

1. The Sierra Madre natives even wondered how the two parties can sincerely talk peace when their armed groups continue to shoot each others to death. Hindi po ba talaga puwede na may ceasefire habang naguusap? Sabi ni Alex Padilla, ipapanukala niya ito sa informal phase ng talks next week. Can I have your reaction on this?

Answer: Prolonged and indefinite ceasefire without first addressing the roots of the armed conflict through basic social, economic and political reforms to lay the ground for a just peace would amount to mere pacification and capitulation of the revolutionary forces and people to the unjust US-dominated ruling system of the exploiting classes, the big compradors and landlords, who are responsible for the ever worsening levels of oppression and exploitation, the poverty, underdevelopment, corruption and state terrorism.

The revolutionary forces and people have always made it  clear that the root causes of all the aforesaid social evils and the consequent revolutionary resistance of the people are foreign monopoly capitalism, domestic feudalism and bureaucrat capitalism.  It is perverse for anyone to suggest that the resistance of the suffering people to their oppressors and exploiters is the cause of  the grave maladies and daily violence of the unjust ruling system.

Like some of his predecessors, Alex Padilla might propose a prolonged and indefinite ceasefire without first addressing the roots of the armed conflict in accordance with The Hague Joint Declaration of 1992.  If he does, that is his own lookout. But I think that he will not force his hand in order  to angle  for the pacification and capitulation of the NDFP and to replace substantive peace negotiations with prolonged ceasefire talks and the prospect of ceaseless preoccupation with claims and counterclaims of ceasefire violations. I do not expect Alex to abandon the substantive peace negotiations in favor of ceasefire talks.

The NDFP side will remind the other side that the NDFP has long put forward the proposal to accelerate negotiations on social and economic reforms in order to pave the way for negotiations on political and constitutional reforms within a few months.  Any proposal to frontload the end of hostilities is regarded by the NDFP as a clear attempt to lay aside the need to negotiate first the social, economic and political reforms. 

But without doing away with the existing substantive agenda, the NDFP has also proposed an immediate alliance and truce on the basis of a common declaration of patriotic and progressive principles, including national independence, people’s empowerment, democracy and respect for human rights, economic development through national industrialization and land reform, upholding the rights and livelihood of the working people, promotion of a patriotic, democratic and scientific culture and a truly independent foreign policy.

2. May I ask sir, “With this new bid for peace, what can you promise to the Filipino people? I don’t know how to ask this. Pero marami ang nagdududa sa katapatan ng mga komunista sa panibagong peace talks na gagawin.

Answer: I do not make promises to the people like those in power who take turns in oppressing and exploiting them. What I have always done in my life and what so many other  people have done  is to arouse, organize and mobilize the broad masses of the people to fight for their own national and democratic rights and interests.  I have always pointed out the people’s own demands and aspirations for  genuine national independence, democracy, economic development, social justice, cultural progress and world peace.  These should be expressed in realistic and realizable terms in the comprehensive agreements on social, economic, political and constitutional reforms through the substantive peace negotiations.

Those who merely doubt, denigrate or even demonize the revolutionary forces of the CPP, NPA and NDFP and the millions of Filipino people in the revolutionary mass movement  obviously benefit from the unjust system of oppresion and exploitation.  They keep on dreaming that they can destroy the people’s revolution with sheer military force, psywar tactics and attempts to push the revolutionary forces towards pacification and capitulation.   They seem not to realize that the revolutionary movement has overcome all the military campaigns of suppression and deception unleashed by the Marcos fascist dictatorship and the subsequent pseudo-democratic regimes.

At the moment, the GRP and NDFP sides are determined to hold preliminary talks  to pave the way for formal talks in accordance with The Hague Joint Declaration and other existing agreements. The continuing coordinated propaganda and military attacks on the revolutionary forces and people might be calculated to  interfere with the efforts to resume the formal talks next month.  But so far the responsible leaders of the GRP and NDFP themselves have decided to carry forward the peace negotiations.  In this regard, I do not get distracted by comments, innuendoes, spins and suggestions to do away with the peace negotiations.
Of course, you may publish my answers to your questions.

Thank you.
Regards,
Joma/ Prof. Jose Maria Sison
NDFP Chief Political Consultant


(Reposted with permission from Mr. Joma Sison)
_________


Source:

Prolonged Ceasefire ahead of Basic Reforms Amounts to Pacification and Capitulation. In http://www.josemariasison.org/?p=6001.



Licencia de Creative Commons Reposts are licensed to the respective authors. Otherwise, posts by Jesusa Bernardo are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Philippines.

Tuesday, January 4, 2011

Joma Sison on Taxation & Peace Negotiations

Interview with Prof. Jose Maria Sison
NDFP Chief Political Consultant
by Lira Dalangin Fernandez
Philippine Daily Inquirer
29 December  2010


Happy holidays, Professor Joma! Kumusta po kayo.
Hi Lira! Happy holidays and best wishes for the new year!

I am fine.

1. Several officials here say that the issue of revolutionary tax being imposed on firms, such as mining companies, should be among the agenda in the talks. what’s your take on this?

Answer: There is yet no peace agreement. The two conflicting sides of the civil war in the Philippines are still negotiating. Everyone must recognize the fact that there are two governments in the Philippines. One is the reactionary government of the big compradors and landlords seated in Manila and headed by Noynoy Aquino. The other is the revolutionary government of workers and peasants based in the countryside and led by the Communist Party of the Philippines.

The revolutionary government has always made it clear that it collects taxes in order to cover the costs of administration, defense, land reform, promotion of production and social programs, including public education, health, cultural and other activities.

The GRP civilian and military officials are wrong and are engaged in disinformation when they say that the revolutionary forces are collecting taxes from foreign mining companies. My understanding of the policy of the revolutionary government is banning, disabling and dismantling such mining companies because they damage the economy and environment and take away land from land reform. Please read the latest policy statements of the CPP in www.philippinerevolution.net These are the 42nd anniversary statement of the CPP on December 26 and the reiteration of policy regarding mining on December 29.

May I add that the foreign mining companies take away nonrenewable mineral resources and damage permanently the people’s aspiration for national industrialization. The CPP and other major patriotic organizations as well as the main religious organizations are opposed to the treasonous plunder of mineral resources by 100 per cent foreign-owned mining companies.

2. While not a precondition, do you agree that this should stop as confidence-building measure for the talks?

Answer: It is the duty and prerogative of the people’s revolutionary government to collect taxes for the purposes beneficial to the people. In contrast, the reactionary government collects taxes and engages in excessive foreign and domestic borrowing to serve the purposes of the foreign monopolies, the big compradors, landlords and the corrupt officials.

My understanding of the policy pronouncements of the CPP as leading party in the people’s revolutionary government is that it will not collect taxes from the foreign mining companies but will ban, disable and dismantle such companies. That should raise the confidence of the people in their revolutionary government and expose the treasonous character of the reactionary govenment.

3. What are the other possible agenda in both the January and February meetings?

Answer: The preliminary meeting in Oslo in January 14 to 18 will resolve certain issues and thus pave the way for the resumption of formal talks in February 15 to 21. The most important issues in the preliminary meeting pertain to compliance with the Joint Agreement on Safety and Immunity Guarantees, the Comprehensive Agreement on Respect for Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law and certain confidence-building and goodwill measures.

The agenda in the resumption of formal talks will include exchange of credentials between the two panels, the reaffirmation of the existing agreements, compliance with JASIG, implmentation of CARHRIHL, accelerated negotiations on social and economic reforms by the Reciprocal Working Committees, the concept of working group on political and constitutional reforms and confidence-building and goodwill measures.###

(Reposted with permission from Prof. Jose Maria Sison)


__________


Source:

Fernandez, Lira Dalangin. ON TAXATION AND PEACE NEGOTIATIONS (Interview with Prof. Joma Sison). Philippine Daily Inquirer. 29 December 2010. In Joma Sison's website: http://www.josemariasison.org/?p=5887



Photo Credits:

Jose Maria Sison.

http://www.nenepimentel.org/speeches/20071126_Mining.asp

Licencia de Creative Commons Reposts are licensed to the respective authors. Otherwise, posts by Jesusa Bernardo are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Philippines.

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