Tuesday, August 31, 2010

Over 26K Antipolonians demand completion of PCOS forensic investigation by the Senate

Press Release by MIGHT e2010


MORE THAN 26,000 ANTIPOLONIANS CALLING FOR THE SENATE TO FINISH FORENSIC INVESTIGATION ON THEIR PCOS MACHINES

Today, around 500 leaders from 16 Baranggays in Antipolo City gathered at the Senate to submit their petition calling for the continuation of the forensic investigation on the Antipolo PCOS Machines, which are currently in the custody of the Senate. Their petition was voluntarily signed by more than 26,000 Antipolonians who are strongly seeking for the truth on whether the PCOS machines are used for electoral fraud.

These 60 PCOS machines were turned over to the Senate last 19 May 2010 after the ordeal of more than 5000 residents from Antipolo City who camped for days at the Rizal Provincial Capital under constant threat by the presence of almost 600 policemen surrounding the area to guard the 60 PCOS machines found in the private resident of a Smartmatic technician.

“We risked our lives to protect the integrity of the 60 PCOS machines, because it holds the truth on whether there was fair and honest election in Antipolo City. We are still waiting for the Senate to give due attention to what we fought for.”, Stated by Mr. Fernando D. Gonzaga II, a representative of the “Pinagkaisang Lakas at Ugnayan ng Mamamayan ng Antipolo (PLUMA)” who led the gathering in the Senate.

As contained in the petition letter addressed to the Hon. Senate President Juan Ponce Enrile, they requested the Senate to address the preliminary report of the Joint Forensic Team showing irregularities found in the analysis of the 33 PCOS machines from Antipolo. They also appealed for the remaining 27 PCOS machines to be opened and analyzed by a credible agency such as the Philippine Computer Society (PCS).

The Joint Canvassing Committee (JCC) formed the Joint Forensic Team to analyze the (60) PCOS Machines of Antipolo City. The Forensic examination was conducted on only thirty three (33) units of the PCOS machines and thirty one (31) pieces of Compact Flash (CF) memory cards. The preliminary forensic analysis conducted showed the following results:

Extracted Hash Code Did not match published Hash Code. The hash code verifies the authenticity of the electronic file in the CF cards. The code will change if the content of that electronic file is modified. A thorough comparison with the official documented posted in the COMELEC website revealed that the published hash code found in the CF Cards from Antipolo is not the same as the extracted hash code.
Absence of Machine Digital Signatures. Examination of the PCOS machines revealed that there was no evidence found to prove the existence of digital certificates in the PCOS machines, contrary to the claims of Smartmatic.
PCOS Machine Can Be Controlled Through Its Console Port.The PCOS machine contains a console port, which Smartmatic claimed is only a one-way output port, used for diagnostics purposes only. The forensic team was able to connect an ordinary laptop computer to the console port of a PCOS machine using a serial cable.

“According to the Forensic Team, this discovery was (and still) is a major vulnerability of the PCOS machine  - which could be exploited to manipulate the actual operations of the PCOS machine – and which should be an utmost concern for election critics and watchdogs. Smartmatic cannot offer a technical explanation for this major loophole.”

More evidence of irregularities was found on August 3, 2010 when CF flash cards used in Antipolo City during the May 10, 2010 elections were analyzed at the SMARTMATIC warehouse in Cabuyao Laguna. Based on the manifestation submitted by NPC representative of Antipolo City, Atty. Andrei Zapanta, It was discovered that of the 367 precincts representing the precincts in Antipolo City only 317 CF cards could be backed up. 50 CF cards were already back up cards thus there were 50 main CF cards not in the possession of the COMELEC contrary to the statement given by the COMELEC City Election Officer that all the main cards were with the possession of the COMELEC.

In addition it was discovered that there were CF cards that were not reconfigured and were ordered to be recalled, contained votes cast in the May 10 elections. These CF cards submitted to the COMELEC contained error in comparing the hashes and couldn’t be backed-up at Smartmatics Cabuyao. Others showed that two CF cards were used as primary cards in one clustered precinct.

Taken as a whole, these new findings in Smartmatics Cabuyao and forensic evidence clearly show the possibility that the local election results in Antipolo City were heavily compromised. Through the initiative of the “Pinagkaisang Lakas at Ugnayan ng Mamamayan ng Antipolo (PLUMA)”, they hope to unravel the truth surrounding the Antipolo PCOS Machines to show whether there is really honesty and truth on the May 2010 local elections in Antipolo City.

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Source:

MIGHT e2010. MORE THAN 26,000 ANTIPOLONIANS CALLING FOR THE SENATE TO FINISH FORENSIC INVESTIGATION ON THEIR PCOS MACHINES. http://www.facebook.com/notes/might-e2010/more-than-26000-antipolonians-calling-for-the-senate-to-finish-forensic-investig/150731004956016


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Monday, August 30, 2010

"Ang Dapat Mabatid ng mga Tagalog," ni Gat Andres Bonifacio

Ang Dapat Mabatid ng mga Tagalog
Bonifacio, Andres. “ Ang Dapat Mabatid ng mga Tagalog,” Kalayaan 18 (January 1896).


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: Andres Bonifacio shows in this essay his tripartite view of Philippine history (Liwanag, Dilim, Liwanag) and exhorts the Filipinos to fight for independence. Bonifacio writes about the true conditions of the Philippines before the coming of the Spaniards. He reiterates that it was a period of ' Liwanag ' . The Filipinos enjoyed prosperity (kaginhawaan), abundance (kasaganahan) and a thriving trade relations with neighboring countries especially Japan. But the Spaniards came and offered the natives friendship and a path towards knowledge.  Although sealed by a blood compact between Sikatuna and Legazpi, the Spaniards did not keep their promise. Bonifacio stresses that this was a period of ' Dilim ' when the Filipinos suffered treachery, slavery and hunger under the Spaniards.  Bonifacio declares that it was the time ' for the light of truth to shine ' or a new period of ' Liwanag ' . He tells the people to follow reason (katwiran), to understand the true state of the country and to unite (magkaisang-loob) against the evils (kasamaan) in our country (Bayan).
(Andres Bonifacio, Katipunan, Bonifacio, sandugo, Bayan, katwiran, kaginhawaan)
 
Itong Katagalugan, na pinamamahalaan nang unang panahon ng ating tunay na mga kababayan niyaong hindi pa tumutulong sa mga lupaing ito ang mga Kastila, ay nabubuhay sa lubos na kasaganaan, at kaginhawaaan. Kasundo niya ang mga kapit-bayan at lalung-lalo na ang mga taga-Japon (=Japan), sila’y kabilihan at kapalitan ng mga kalakal, malabis ang pagyabong ng lahat ng pinagkakakitaan, kaya’t dahil dito’y mayaman ang kaasalan ng lahat, bata’t matanda at sampung mga babae ay marunong bumasa at sumulat ng talagang pagsulat nating mga Tagalog. Dumating ang mga Kastila at dumulog na nakipagkaibigan. Sa mabuti nilang hikayat na diumano, tayo’y aakayin sa lalong kagalingan at lalong imumulat ang ating kaisipan, ang nasabing nagsisipamahala ay nangyaring nalamuyot sa tamis ng kanilang dila sa paghibo. Gayon man sila’y ipinailalim sa talagang kaugaliang pinagkayarian sa pamamagitan ng isang panunumpa na kumuha ng kaunting dugo sa kani-kanilang mga ugat, at yao’y inihalo’t ininom nila kapwa tanda ng tunay at lubos na pagtatapat na di magtataksil sa pinagkayarian. Ito’y siyang tinatawag na “Pacto de Sangre” ng haring Sikatuna * at ni Legaspi (= Miguel Lopez de Legazpi ) na pinakakatawanan ng hari sa Espana.


Buhat nang ito’y mangyari ay bumubilang na ngayon sa tatlong daang taon mahigit na ang lahi ni Legaspi ay ating binubuhay sa lubos na kasaganaan, ating pinagtatamasa at binubusog, kahit abutin natin ang kasalatan at kadayukdukan; iginugugol natin ang yaman, dugo at sampu ng tunay na mga kababayan na aayaw pumayag na sa kanila’y pasakop, at gayon din naman nakipagbaka tayo sa mga Insik at taga-Holandang nagbalang umagaw sa kanila nitong Katagalugan.

Ngayon sa lahat ng ito’y ano ang sa mga ginawa nating paggugugol ang nakikitang kaginhawahang ibinigay sa ating Bayan? Ano ang nakikita nating pagtupad sa kanilang kapangakuan na siyang naging dahil ng ating paggugugol! Wala kudi pawang kataksilan ang ganti sa ating mga pagpapala at mga pagtupad sa kanilang ipinangakong tayo’y lalong gigisingin sa kagalingan ay bagkus tayong binulag, inihawa tayo sa kanilang hamak na asal, pinilit na sinira ang mahal at magandang ugali ng ating Bayan; iminulat tayo sa isang maling pagsampalataya at isinadlak sa lubak ng kasamaan ang kapurihan ng ating Bayan; at kung tayo’y mangahas humingi ng kahit gabahid na lingap, ang nagiging kasagutan ay ang tayo’y itapon at ilayo sa piling ng ating minamahal ng anak, asawa at matandang magulang. Ang bawat isang himutok na pumulas sa ating dibdib ay itinuturing na isang malaking pagkakasala at karakarakang nilalapatan ng sa hayop na kabangisan.

Ngayon wala nang maituturing na kapanatagan sa ating pamamayan; ngayon lagi nang gingambala ang ating katahimikan ng umaalingawngaw na daing at pananambitan, buntong-hininga at hinagpis ng makapal na ulila, bao’t mga magulang ng mga kababayang ipinanganyaya ng mga manlulupig na Kastila; ngayon tayo’y nalulunod na sa nagbabahang luha ng Ina sa nakitil na buhay ng anak, sa pananangis ng sanggol na pinangulila ng kalupitan na ang bawat patak ay katulad ng isang kumukulong tinga, na sumasalang sa mahapding sugat ng ating pusong nagdaramdam; ngayon lalo’t lalo tayong nabibiliran ng tanikalang nakalalait sa bawat lalaking may iniingatang kapurihan. Ano ang nararapat nating gawin? Ang araw ng katuwiran na sumisikat sa Silanganan, ay malinaw na itinuturo sa ating mga matang malaong nabulagan, ang landas na dapat nating tunguhin, ang liwanag niya’y tanaw sa ting mga mata, ang kukong nag-akma ng kamatayang alay sa atin ng mga ganid na asal. Itinuturo ng katuwiran, na wala tayong iba pang maaantay kundi lalo’t lalong kaalipinan. Itinuturo ng katuwiran, lalo’t lalong kaalipustaan at lalo’t lalong kaalipinan. Itinuturo ng katuwiran, na huwag nating sayangin ang panahon sa pag-asa sa ipinangakong kaginhawahan na hindi darating at hindi mangyayari. Itinuturo ng katuwiran ang tayo’y umasa sa ating at huwag antayin sa iba ang ating kabuhayan. Itinuturo na katuwiran ang tayo’y magkaisang-loob, magkaisang isip at akala at nang tayo’y magkaisa na maihanap ng lunas ang naghaharing kasamaan sa ating Bayan.

Panahon na ngayong dapat na lumitaw ang liwanag ng katotohanan; panahon nang dapat nating ipakilala na tayo’y may sariling pagdaramdam, may puri, may hiya at pagdadamayan. Ngayon panahon nang dapat simulan ang pagsisiwalat ng mga mahal at dakilang ani na magwawasak sa masinsing tabing na bumubulag sa ating kaisipan; panahon na ngayong dapat makilala ng mga Tagalog ang pinagbuhatan ng kanilang mga kahirapan. Araw na itong dapat kilalanin na sa bawat isang hakbang natin ay tumutuntong tayo at nabibingit sa malalim na hukay ng kamatayan na sa ati’y inuumang ng mga kaaway.

Kaya, O mga kababayan, ating idila ang bulag na kaisipan at kusang igugol sa kagalingan ang atin lakas sa tunay at lubos na pag-asa na magtagumpay sa nilalayong kaginhawahan ng bayan tinubuan.

  * FN Sikatuna in this document would refer to Rajah Sikatuna who was the ruler of Bohol when Miguel Lopez de Legazpi came to the Philippines.

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Source: 

FILIPINIANA.NET

Photo collage: Jesusa Bernardo

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Thelmo Cunanan's daughter speaks the patriarch's side of the coin

 (Repost of a Facebook note, August 29, 2010)


WITH FRIENDS LIKE JARIUS BONDOC, WHO NEEDS ENEMIES?
by Christine Cunanan 

In today's Philippine Star, columnist Jarius Bondoc wrote a scathing column about my father, former SSS Chairman Thelmo Y. Cunanan based on the erroneous information reported recently at the Senate. Other columnists who feed mainly on scandal to get people to read their columns did the same. However, for me, Jarius Bondoc's column strikes a particularly bitter note.  For years, he and my father dined at the same table at parties and my father treated him as a friend. This doesn't mean that my father should get favorable treatment from Bondoc or that Bondoc should tiptoe around any issue concerning my father. However, at the very least, I did expect that Bondoc would make even just one phone call or send one lousy text message, to try and get my father's side of the story, before he so publicly maligned my father's reputation in his column. He has my mother's and father's numbers on his mobile phone -- why, for god's sake, did he not even bother to call them for clarification?

As you all know, there are always two sides to a story -- and many politicians and journalists are only too eager to pounce on a link that may get them or their columns talked about. But you have also known my parents for years -- and I'm sure you know they are the last people in this intrigue-ridden world who should be called thieves. They've lived simply and they've almost always -- to the point of fault -- for others. They've worked hard all their lives and have never taken advantage of anyone for their own personal benefit.

This outrageous maligning of my father's reputation by supposed friends who should know better -- and who should at least get the other side of the story before printing such lies propagated by politicians who are simply looking for a headline issue to latch on to -- is particularly painful right now when my father is battling the late stages of cancer. My parents are heartbroken that their good reputation has been so unjustly torn to pieces by sensationalizing politicians and columnists.
THE TRUTH ABOUT THE PHILEX SHARES
The figures released by Sen. Frank Drilon during the Senate hearing last Tuesday were not accurate. Over the past three years, former SSS Chair Thelmo Cunanan availed of the stock option offered by Philex to the eleven members of its Board of Directors (of which he was one, representing SSS and duly elected by Philex's stockholders). He exercised his option to purchase over three years a total of 4.5 million shares, paying for them with his own funds, through a loan from HSBC, at market prices varying from P1.09 per stock up to P3.08 per stock. Out of these shares, he sold through his stockbroker 1.2 million shares in several  transactions:

Shares sold in 2007365,000 shares

Shares sold in December 2009895,700 shares

The selling prices in 2007 varied from P8.3 to P10.75, and from P15.50 to P15.75 per share in 2009. Total value of these sale transactions was about P17.6M. If the cost of buying these said 1.2 M shares, which is about P2.3 million, is subtracted, we see that Cunanan ended up with P15.3M earnings, NOT P66.6M.

Payment by TYC for sold 1.2M shares via an HSBC loanPhP 2.3 million

Value of sale of 1.2M shares when soldPhP 17.6 million

PRE-TAX net value received by TYCPhP 15.3 million

The confusion of the Drilon committee arose from its erroneous assumption that Cunanan sold his 4.5 million shares and then turned around and immediately sold them at the prevailing market price of P19.50 per share then. This was not the case.

As shown above, he sold only 1.2 million shares and at much lower prices thah P19.50 per. He has kept the other 3.3 million shares to bequeath to his children, but as shares come and go, their prices fluctuate. This is a gamble all stockholders make. Today Philex price per share is only P9.20. There's also the issue of whether Cunanan should have offered the purchase of these shares of stock to the firm he represents, the SSS. But Art. 8 of the Philex Corp. Stock Option Plan states that these stock options are "non-transferrable" and "no rights may be transferrred, sold, exchanged, pledged, disposed of or otherwise hypothecated or encumbered by a Participant or any beneficiary thereof." If he did not avail of them, the SSS couldn't have availed of them either because of this non-transferrable provision.

Please help us spread the truth.


________

A graduate of Ateneo de Manila University, Christine Cunang is the publisher and editor-in-chief of travel and lifestyle publication, Travelife Magazine.


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Friday, August 27, 2010

Why the Chinese should understand HOCUS PCOS Philippine "President" Noynoy Aquino

WHILE  reports of  automated HOCUS PCOS  electoral fraud last May 10 were still being investigated by the Philippine Congress, with Joseph Estrada, Nicanor Perlas, Jamby Madrigal, JC de los Reyes, and Bro. Eddie Villanueva NOT yet conceding:

May 27, 2010 - "Chinese Ambassador Liu Jinchao pays courtesy call to president-apparent Noynoy Aquino"

The Chinese embassy would not give details of the visit, but it was reported that since Aquino is a fifth-generation Chinese on his mother side, the so-called “Fujian connection” was also mentioned between the two. Fijuan is a province in southeastern China where Aquino's maternal ancestors originated.


May 29, 2010 - Presidentiable Jc de los Reyes remarks at Facebook that foreign envoys (including the United States) should have been "diplomatic" enough not to preempt the Philippine poll process.

May 29, 2010 - Liu Jinchao defends his premature visit, claiming it is personal and that Noynoy is a "very good friend."

MANILA, Philippines - Chinese Ambassador Liu Jinchao said that his visit to president-apparent Sen. Benigno “Noynoy” Aquino III last Thursday was a personal visit to a “very good friend” and an incumbent senator.


"Very good friend"? Iyon naman pala eh. So dapat nainintindihan ng Hong Kong /Chinese people na mahilig lang tumawa si HOCUS PCOS "President" Noynoy.  In English, if indeed, as Ambassador Liu Jinchao earlier claimed, Benigno Simeon "Noynoy" Aquino III and he are chummy chummy, then he should make the Hong Kong people understand that it is simply in the psychologically complex nature of the current occupant of Malacanang to make such seemingly insulting smiles even amidst tragedies.

Besides, no less than Liu Jinchao pointed to the "Fujian connection" of the Cojuangco side of the Philippine "President. So there, one Yellow race connection, so just forgive  the blunders of the administration of the HOCUS PCOS one, will you, Chinese/Hong Kong people?



For the latest Philippine news stories and videos, visit GMANews.TV



The so-called HOCUS PCOS Aquino III administration, dubbed "Unelected and Illegal" by the group of presidentiable Perlas, concededly committed diplomatic faux pas he failed to initiate the call, or to answer the call, of  Hong Kong Chief Executive Donald Tsang last Monday during the height of the tourist bus hostage crisis. However, considering that the Chinese envoy to the Philippines, along with two others, also committed one when when he made a premature virtual courtesy visit to Aquino III last May 27.

Faux Pas both

Why do I say the action of the Chinese envoy, along with those of the United States and Japan, should be considered a diplomatic faux pas, if not a breach of diplomatic protocol? Because the visit was somehow timed with the height of the automated poll fraud hearings being heard by the congressional canvassing committee. Thus, China's decision to send its envoy to the Philippines necessarily sends the message that Aquino III is their "annointed one" so you Filipino solon-canvassers better consider that.

While Jinchao defended the visit by raising the rather conflicting arguments that it is personal, Aquino III being a "very good friend," and "he is a senator," the act  nevertheless smacked of political at a very political time. It does need much education for a person to reckon that the electoral, pre-proclamation phase called for diplomatic NEUTRALITY. That supposed 'personal' courtesy visit, it should be noted, was NOT kept private. As presidentiable de los Reyes  now comments on the May visit:
It's different if they chatted privately. Here they allowed media to take their pictures and even video. It was a public spectacle. They (Aquino III and Liu Jinchao] and both are a travesty of political delicadeza.

How personal can that visit be when Noynoy himself said that "he and Liu Jinchao also talked about the controversial broadband deal the Arroyo administration entered into with China's Zhong Xing Telecommunications Equipment Corp. (ZTE)." Why would Aquino III, who has on record absolutely zero accomplishment as a solon, be bothered with such an issue if not in connection with what was then being projected-by-his-partisans to be his "apparent" future role as Philippine President. That the Chinese envoy's visit was much more than personal is well seen in how GMANews.TV-7 and other media entities headlined it no less as a "courtesy call."
 

Illogic of Anger towards the Filipino Nation

In other words, since both Jinchao and Aquino III had been guilty of diplomatic faux pas in the very recent past; and since the presidency of the illegal and fraudulently elected Noynoy is partly a product of Chinese anointing; and since both figures claim to be "very good" friends having a common Fujian connection; and since the Filipino people have expressed multiple times their sincerest apologies and sympathies to the victims of the tragic bus hostage incident, the Hong Kong Chinese people, therefore, would do wisely to open their minds and hearts to forgive those responsible for the deaths of their compatriots.

If not forgive the direct perpetrator(s), the HK Chinese people should at least exercise a sober and sane perspective that the killings of the eight persons was NOT an act of the Filipino nation. To do otherwise smacks of illogic and even racism. Thank you for those who understand. For the others, stop the racist hatred please.


________

Sources:

Baylon, Gloria Jane. "After the US, China and Japan envoys visit Noynoy Aquino." 27 May 2010. http://balita.ph/2010/05/27/after-the-us-china-and-japan-envoys-visit-noynoy-aquino/

"Chinese Ambassador Liu Jianchao pays courtesy call to president-apparent Noynoy Aquino." GMANews.TV. 27 May 2010. http://www9.gmanews.tv/eleksyon2010/videos/60878/chinese-ambassador-liu-jianchao-pays-courtesy-call-to-president-apparent-noynoy-aquino

Dedace, Sophia. "Noynoy, Chinese envoy discuss controversial ZTE deal." GMANews.TV. 27 May 2010. http://www.gmanews.tv/story/192001/noynoy-chinese-envoy-discuss-controversial-zte-deal

Perlas, Nicanor. Unelected and Illegal Government. 1 July 2010. Nicanor Perlas Site. http://blog-by-taga-ilog-news.blogspot.com/2010/07/unelected-and-illegal-government-of.html

Ronda, Rainier Allan. Chinese envoy finds nothing wrong with visit to Noynoy." The Philippine Star. Updated May 29, 2010. http://www.philstar.com/Article.aspx?articleId=579446&publicationSubCategoryId=63

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Wednesday, August 25, 2010

Kasaysayan ng Kapilipinuhan ni Dr. Zeus Salazar








KASAYSAYAN NG KAPILIPINUHAN
Bagong Balangkas

Zeus A. Salazar


Lunsod Quezon
Disyembre, 2004


KASAYSAYAN NG KAPILIPINUHAN
Bagong Balangkas
(Karapatang Sipi 1991/1999/2000/2004)

Dr. Zeus A. Salazar





Panimula

            Ang kasaysayan ng Pilipinas ay mahahati sa tatlong panahon o bahagi --  ang Pamayanan (h-k. 500,000/250,00 BK – 1588 MK),  Bayan (1588 -1913) at Bansa (1913 - kasalukuyan).

          Ang PAMAYANAN ay binubuo ng limang kabanata at tumatalakay sa paglitaw ng sinaunang pamayanang Pilipino, mula sa pagsulpot ng unang tao (h-k. 500,000/250,000-7,000/5,000 BK) sa kapuluan -- magdaan sa 1) pagdating at pamamalagi sa Pilipinas ng mga Austronesyano (h-k. 7,000/5,000 BK h-k. 800 BK) na ang dala-dalang mga kagamitan, kaalaman at kasanayan sa iba’t ibang larangan ng pamumuhay ay magiging pinakabatayan o haligi ng uusbong na kalinangang Pilipino;  at 2) sa pagkabuo ng sinaunang Kabihasnang Pilipino (h-k. 800 BK – 1280 MK) na natatangi dahil sa namamayaning kalinangang mana mula sa mga ninunong Austronesyano at dahil sa ang panahong ito ang simula ng pagsasambayanan (pagbubuo ng mga estadong bayan o etniko), at ng paglawak ng kalakalan sa loob ng Pilipinas at sa pagitan nito at mga karatig-bayan --  hanggang sa simula ng paglaganap  ng Islam sa Sulu, Magindanaw at Maranaw na aabutan ng unang pagsapit ng Kristiyanismo sa Sugbu at ilan pang lugar sa hilagang Mindanaw (h-k. 1280 MK - 1588).  Sa pagpasok ng ika-16 na dantaon, masasalamin sa mga pamayanang nabuo ang kaunlaran at kayamanan ng kabihasnang Pilipino sa lahat ng aspeto ng lipunan -- kalinangan, pananampalataya, pulitika, at ekomoniya.

            Nakatuon naman ang limang kabanatang BAYAN sa pagkabuo ng estadong pangkapuluan sa batayan ng paglawak ng estado o sambayanan ng Maynila na sasaklaw bilang “estadong kolonyal” sa malaking bahagi ng kapuluan (hanggang 1896), habang nananatiling palaban dito ang nalalabing mga estadong etniko (sambayanan) ng Tausog, Magindanaw at Maranaw, kasama na ang iba pang “malalayang” grupong etnolingguwistiko (kabayanan) na taal sa Pilipino. Tatalakayin ang yugtong ito ng pagkabuong pulitikal ng archipelago, mula sa krisis na daranasin ng (mga) pamayanang Pilipino (1588-1663) patungo sa pagpapalaganap ng mga comandancia militar, pueblo,villa at ciudad na Kastila bilang bagong pag-aanyo ng mga batayang pamayanan o bayan ng Kapilipinuhan (1663-1745); sa pagbalik at panimulang paglampas sa estadong etniko (pagsasambayanan) na isasagawa ng ilang mga kabayanan (Katagalugan, Kailukuhan, Sulu, Bohol, at iba pa) bilang batayan ng pagkakaisa laban sa estadong “kolonyal” (Kastila) na nasasalalay sa estado ng Maynila ni Sulayman-Rajah Matanda (1745-1807).

Masasabing magsisimula sa panahong ito ang pagkabuo ng kapuluan sa batayan ng pinalawak na dalumat ng “bayan” na pagdating ng panahon ay magkakaroon ng anyong pangkapuluan sa adhikaing Inang Bayan ni Bonifacio. Nakaugat pa ang prosesong ito sa panahong Austronesyano; samantalang ang paglaganap ng ideyang Europeo/kanluranin ng “nación” ay lilitaw lamang sa panahon ng “Bayang Pilipino: Katutubo at Banyaga” (1807-1861),  bagay na magbibigay-daan sa pagkakahati ng lipunan sa dalawang magkatunggaling kalinangan, kamalayan at puwersang sosyo-pulitikal at pang-ekonomiya --  ang taal na bayan at ang inangkat mula sa Kanluran nanación (1861-1913). Dulot nito, magkakaroon ng magkaibang direksyong ekonomiko-pulitikal at panlipunan ang bagong kabuuang sosyo-pulitikal ng Kapilipinuhan sa pagsapit ng ika-20ng dantaon.

            Ito ang paksa ng BANSA (1913 – kasalukuyan). Nasasalalay ito sa paglaganap ng hangarin ng mga elit (nangangastila sa simula at Inglesero pagdating ng oras) na mabuo ang bansa sa direksyong itinakda ng nación (nasyon) na dulot ng Propaganda -- na ang simula ng pamamayani sa larangang pulitikal ay bunga ng kudeta nina Aguinaldo sa Tejeros at ang pagpatuloy nito sa pagdating nitong huli sa Pilipinas noong Mayo 19, 1898 lulan ng isang boke-de-giyerang Amerikano, matapos isuko ang Himagsikan noong Disyembre 1897 sa Biak-na-Bato -- habang patuloy pa ring adhikain ng Bayan ang masaklaw ang Kapilipinuhan sa loob ng isang bansa bilang pinalawak na Inang Bayan. Tema ng dalawang patunguhan ang “kalayaan” at “kasarinlan.” Mas nakatuon sa “kasarinlan” (bilang “pagsasarili” at “identidad”/“kakanyahan”) ang (mga anak ng) Inang Bayan, samantalang mas importante ang “kalayaan” (bilang “independensya” o “kalayaang pulitikal” o/at pang-ekonomiya) para sa mga nagtataguyod ng “nasyon.”

Ang apat na kabanata ng BANSA ay tumatalakay sa adhikaing mapalaya ang sarili, ang makapagbukod at magkaisa/mapag-isa ang Kapilipinuhan (1913-1946); sa paggawad ng “kalayaan” sa kaelitan ng Pilipinas at sa kinalabasan nitong malaking pagsubok sa estadong nasyonal dulot ng krisis sa identidad at sa sistemang panlipunan (1946-1972);  sa paghahanap ng “kasarinlan” sa ilalim ng Batas Militar bilang lihis na landasin (1972-1986); at sa pagtutuwid nito sa pamamagitan ng pagbabalik sa “demokrasya” at patuloy na pagharap sa suliranin ng kasarinlan (bilang identidad/kakanyahan at tunay na pagsasarili) at “kaunlaran” (1986-kasalukuyan), kung kailan lalong magiging malinaw ang kontradiksyon sa pagitan ng kaelitang pulitikal at pang-ekonomiya na may kulturang Kanluranin (Inglesero) at ng Bayang tapat sa sariling (mga) wika at kalinangan.
                                    
Dayagram 1
KASAYSAYAN NG KAPILIPINUHAN
Bagong Balangkas


INTRO-DUKSYON
Unang Bahagi
PAMAYANAN
(H-K. 500,000/250,000 BK-
1588 MK)
Ikalawang Bahagi
BAYAN
(1588-1913)

Ikatlong Bahagi
BANSA
(1913-Kasalukuyan)


KONKLUSYON
A.      Bakit,ParaKanino, Papaano
B.       Kalagayan at Kapaligiran
K.       Pagkabuo ng Kapuluan
D.    Buod ng    
        Aklat
Panimula: Ang Pagkabuo ng mga Estadong Bayan

I.         Sicalac at Sicavay: Sinaunang Pilipino (h-k. 500,000/250,000 BK – h-k. 7,000/5,000 BK)
II.       Ang mga Austronesyano sa Pilipinas (h-k. 7,000/5,000 BK – h-k. 800 BK)
III.     Sinaunang Kabihasnang Pilipino (h-k. 800 – 1280 MK)
IV.     Estadong Bayan sa Paglaganap ng Islam (h-k. 1280 – 1588)
V.       Kabihasnang Pilipino sa Ika-16 na Dantaon

Pagbubuod:
Kalinangan, Pamayanan at Sambayanan (Pagbuo ng Estadong Bayan o Etniko)
Panimula: Ang Pagkabuo ng Estadong Pangkapuluan

VI.        Krisis ng Pamayanang Pilipino (1588-1663)
VII.      Bayan, Pueblo at Ciudad: Bagong Pamayanan (1663-1745)
VIII.    Batayan ng Pagkakaisa: Balik sa Estadong Bayan (1745-1807)
IX.       Bayang Pilipino: Katutubo at Banyaga (1807-1861)
X.         Bayan at Nación(1861-1913)



Pagbubuod:
Kalayaan at Kasarinlan
Panimula: Nasyon at Bayan sa Pagbubuo ng Bansa

XI.        Iisang Adhikang Kalayaan: Magkasalungat na Pagbubuklod (1913-1946)
XII.      Estadong Nasyonal at ang Pagbubuong Bayan (1946-1972)
XIII.    Paghahanap ng Kasarinlan: Lihis na Landasin (1972-1986)
XIV.    Paghahanap ng Kasarinlan: Masalimuot na Pagtutuwid ng Landas (1972-2004)


Pagbubuod: Nasyonalismo, Pagkamakabayan at
Diwan

______

Source:

Salazar, Zeus. Mula sa "Kasaysayan ng Kapilipinuhan." http://banlawkasaysayan.multiply.com/journal/item/19/KASAYSAYSAYAN_NG_KAPILIPINUHAN_ni_Dr._Zeus_Salazar




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